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Thursday, March 10, 2016

Claim: Higher ozone, lower humidity levels associated with dry eye disease? Really? More Liberal Bull Shit , Dry eye can be a side effect of some medications, including antihistamines, nasal decongestants, tranquilizers, certain blood pressure medicines, Parkinson’s medications, birth control pills and anti-depressants.

 

 

 

 

 

Facts About Dry Eye | National Eye Institute

What are the causes of dry eye?

Dry eye can be a temporary or chronic condition:
  • Dry eye can be a side effect of some medications, including antihistamines, nasal decongestants, tranquilizers, certain blood pressure medicines, Parkinson’s medications, birth control pills and anti-depressants. 
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  • Skin disease on or around the eyelids can result in dry eye. 
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  • Diseases of the glands in the eyelids, such as meibomian gland dysfunction, can cause dry eye. 
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  • Dry eye can occur in women who are pregnant. 
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  • Women who are on hormone replacement therapy may experience dry eye symptoms. Women 
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  • taking only estrogen are 70 percent more likely to experience dry eye, whereas those taking estrogen and progesterone have a 30 percent increased risk of developing dry eye. 
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  • Dry eye can also develop after the refractive surgery known as LASIK. These symptoms generally last three to six months, but may last longer in some cases. 
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  • Dry eye can result from chemical and thermal burns that scar the membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eye. 
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  • Allergies can be associated with dry eye. 
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  • Infrequent blinking, associated with staring at computer or video screens, may also lead to dry eye symptoms. 
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  • Both excessive and insufficient dosages of vitamins can contribute to dry eye. 
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  • Homeopathic remedies may have an adverse impact on a dry eye condition. 
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  • Loss of sensation in the cornea from long-term contact lens wear can lead to dry eye. 
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  • Dry eye can be associated with immune system disorders such as Sjögren’s syndrome, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Sjögren’s leads to inflammation and dryness of the mouth, eyes, and other mucous membranes. It can also affect other organs, including the kidneys, lungs and blood vessels. 
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  • Dry eye can be a symptom of chronic inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane lining the eyelid and covering the front part of the eye, or the lacrimal gland. Chronic conjunctivitis can be caused by certain eye diseases, infection, exposure to irritants such as chemical fumes and tobacco smoke, or drafts from air conditioning or heating. 
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  • If the surface area of the eye is increased, as in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry eye can result.



So where was all this eye “disease” in, say, Los Angeles in 1955 when ozone levels could be eight or so times higher than today’s standards?



The media release is below.

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Higher ozone, lower humidity levels associated with dry eye disease
THE JAMA NETWORK JOURNALS

In a study published online by JAMA Ophthalmology, Dong Hyun Kim, M.D., of Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea and colleagues examined the associations between outdoor air pollution and dry eye disease in a Korean population.

Air pollution is an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization, most significant constituents of air pollution include particulate matter (PM), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Ambient levels of air pollution are known to be associated with a wide range of adverse health effects that particularly affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Ocular surface abnormalities related to air pollution are thought to be a subtype of dry eye disease (DED); however, to date, there has been no large-scale study evaluating an association between air pollution and DED that includes multiple air pollutants.

This study included data on 16,824 participants in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from January 2010 to December 2012. Dry eye disease was defined as previously diagnosed by an ophthalmologist or the presence of frequent ocular pain and discomfort, such as feeling dry or irritated. Outdoor air pollution measurements (average annual humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm [PM10], ozone, and nitrogen dioxide levels) were collected from 283 national monitoring stations in South Korea. The researchers found that decreased humidity levels and increased ozone levels were associated with DED, after controlling for known risk factors such as sex, dyslipidemia, thyroid disease, subjective health awareness, and previous ocular surgery. "These results, however, are just associations and do not definitively indicate a cause-and-effect relationship between DED and outdoor air pollution." PM10, one of the leading public health issues, was not associated with DED. The authors speculate that possible explanations for this finding is that reflex tearing might help flush PM from the ocular surface, or that environmental PM10 levels currently in Korea are not high enough to induce adverse effects on the ocular surface. ###

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